Nifoxipam 3-hydroxydesmethylflunitrazepamDP is a benzodiazepine that is a minor metabolite of flunitrazepam and has been sold online as a designer drug. Nifoxipam produces strong tranquillising and sleep-prolonging effects and has much lower toxicity compared to lormetazepam and flunitrazepam in mice. From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core.
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Wagener, Klaus Dr. Gruber 16 October Retrieved 3 August Haining, Allan E. Rettie, Usanda Busto, Rachel F. Tyndale, Edward M. Sellers April Drug Metabolism and Disposition. World Psychiatry. Retrieved 15 August Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. Cloxazolam Flutazolam Haloxazolam Mexazolam Oxazolam. Bentazepam Clotiazepam.
Olanzapine Telenzepine. Avizafone Rilmazafone. Etomidate Metomidate Propoxate. Fospropofol Propofol. Glutethimide Methyprylon Pyrithyldione Piperidione. Tricyclic antidepressants Amitriptyline Doxepin Trimipramineetc. Tetracyclic antidepressants Mianserin Mirtazapineetc. Typical antipsychotics Chlorpromazine Thioridazineetc.
Atypical antipsychotics Olanzapine Quetiapine Risperidoneetc. Trazodone Tricyclic antidepressants Amitriptyline Doxepin Trimipramineetc. Agomelatine Melatonin Ramelteon Tasimelteon.Diclazepam Roalso known as chlorodiazepam and 2'-chloro-diazepamis a benzodiazepine and functional analog of diazepam. In animal models, its effects are similar to diazepam, possessing long-acting anxiolyticanticonvulsanthypnoticsedativeskeletal muscle relaxantand amnestic properties.
Metabolism of this compound has been assessed,  revealing diclazepam has an approximate elimination half-life of 42 hours and undergoes N -demethylation to delorazepamwhich can be detected in urine for 6 days following administration of the parent compound.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. IUPAC name. Interactive image. Drug Testing and Analysis. Forensic Science International. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. Cloxazolam Flutazolam Haloxazolam Mexazolam Oxazolam. Bentazepam Clotiazepam. Olanzapine Telenzepine. Alprazolam triazolobenzophenone Avizafone Rilmazafone. Anticonvulsants N Fatty acids and related : Valproate Valpromide Valproate pivoxil Vigabatrin.Decode a string recursively encoded as count followed by substring
Anxiolytics N05B. Gabapentin Gabapentin enacarbil Phenibut Pregabalin. SSRIs e. Alpha-1 blockers e. GABA A receptor positive modulators. Etomidate Metomidate Propoxate. Fospropofol Propofol Thymol.
Glutethimide Methyprylon Piperidione Pyrithyldione.Nysc email
Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. Wikimedia Commons.An uncommon and relatively new RC benzodiazepine, and metabolite of the hypnotic benzodiazepine flunitrazepam. Little information about the pharmacological properties of this drug exists. Likely to be a strong sedative and hypnotic. Research chemicals are drugs with relatively little history of human use, and thus particular care should be taken if choosing to ingest them.
Metabolites replace the parent drug in the drug arena. The cases of fonazepam and nifoxipam
These drugs pose a higher risk of causing habit forming behaviour, take particular care with the amount and frequency they are taken. Drugs marked as tentative are those our team wasn't able to find much reliable information about. This is often because the drug is very new. Information listed under these drugs should not be entirely trusted.
Depressants are drugs which reduce arousal and stimulation in the user, characterised by a depressing of mental and physical functions. They would not exist without him. Factsheet data is now cached locally - if you have visited a page you can now view it offline! Are you a harm reduction organisation using TripSit? Let us know about you! Summary An uncommon and relatively new RC benzodiazepine, and metabolite of the hypnotic benzodiazepine flunitrazepam.
Benzodiazepine Benzodiazepines are generally hypnotic or anxiolytic depressant drugs. Read more on TripSit Wiki Research Chemical Research chemicals are drugs with relatively little history of human use, and thus particular care should be taken if choosing to ingest them. Habit-forming These drugs pose a higher risk of causing habit forming behaviour, take particular care with the amount and frequency they are taken.
Tentative Drugs marked as tentative are those our team wasn't able to find much reliable information about. Depressant Depressants are drugs which reduce arousal and stimulation in the user, characterised by a depressing of mental and physical functions.
Oral Light ugug.Nifoxipam 3-hydroxydesmethylflunitrazepamDP is a benzodiazepine that is a minor metabolite of flunitrazepam and has been sold online as a designer drug. Nifoxipam produces strong tranquillising and sleep-prolonging effects and has much lower toxicity compared to lormetazepam and flunitrazepam in mice. Flunitrazepamalso known as Rohypnol among other names, is a benzodiazepine used to treat severe insomnia and assist with anesthesia.
As with other hypnotics, flunitrazepam has been advised to be prescribed only on a short-term basis or by those with chronic insomnia on an occasional basis. Thailand's Psychotropic Substances Act is a law designed to regulate certain mind-altering drugs. Note that this statute does not regulate most opioids, cocaine, or some amphetamines. The vast majority of narcotic painkillers, along with cocaine and most amphetamines are regulated under the Narcotics Act.
It provides that "The Governor in Council may, by order, amend any of Schedules I to VIII by adding to them or deleting from them any item or portion of an item, where the Governor in Council deems the amendment to be necessary in the public interest.
Nimetazepam is an intermediate-acting hypnotic drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. It was first synthesized by a team at Hoffmann-La Roche in It possesses hypnotic, anxiolytic, sedative, and skeletal muscle relaxant properties.
Nimetazepam is also an anticonvulsant. It is generally prescribed for the short-term treatment of severe insomnia in patients who have difficulty falling asleep or maintaining sleep. The sole global manufacturer of Nimetazepam has ceased manufacturing Erimin since early November Patients being prescribed Erimin are being switched to Lavol and other hypnotics, e.
It is marketed in Japan and Taiwan. It exerts its pharmacological properties via enhancement of GABAergic inhibition. Fludiazepam has 4 times more binding affinity for benzodiazepine receptors than diazepam. It possesses anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, sedative, hypnotic and skeletal muscle relaxant properties. Fludiazepam has been used recreationally. Brotizolam is a sedative-hypnotic thienotriazolodiazepine drug which is a benzodiazepine analog.
It possesses anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, hypnotic, sedative and skeletal muscle relaxant properties, and is considered to be similar in effect to short-acting benzodiazepines such as triazolam. It is used in the short-term treatment of severe or debilitating insomnia. Brotizolam is an extremely potent drug and has shown anti-anxiety activity at doses as low as 0. Flutoprazepam Restas is a drug which is a benzodiazepine.
It was patented in Japan by Sumitomo in and its medical use remains mostly confined to that country. Its muscle relaxant properties are approximately equivalent to those of diazepam - however, it has more powerful sedative, hypnotic, anxiolytic and anticonvulsant effects and is around four times more potent by weight compared to diazepam.
It is longer acting than diazepam due to its long-acting active metabolites, which contribute significantly to its effects. Its principal active metabolite is n-desalkylflurazepam, also known as norflurazepam, which is also a principal metabolite of flurazepam. Meclonazepam was discovered by a team at Hoffmann-La Roche in the s and is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative similar in structure to clonazepam.
It has sedative and anxiolytic actions like those of other benzodiazepines, and also has anti-parasitic effects against the parasitic worm Schistosoma mansoni. N -Desalkylflurazepam is a benzodiazepine analog and an active metabolite of several other benzodiazepine drugs including flurazepam, flutoprazepam, fludiazepam, midazolam, flutazolam, quazepam, and ethyl loflazepate. It is long-acting, prone to accumulation, and binds unselectively to the various benzodiazepine receptor subtypes.
It has been sold as a designer drug from onward. Pyrazolam SH-I is a benzodiazepine derivative originally developed by a team led by Leo Sternbach at Hoffman-La Roche in the s, and subsequently "rediscovered" and sold as a designer drug starting in Diclazepam Roalso known as chlorodiazepam and 2'-chloro-diazepamis a benzodiazepine and functional analog of diazepam.
It is not currently approved for use as a medication, but rather sold as an unscheduled substance.Nifoxipam 3-hydroxydesmethylflunitrazepamDP is a benzodiazepine that is a minor metabolite of flunitrazepam and has been sold online as a designer drug.
Nifoxipam produces strong tranquillising and sleep-prolonging effects and has much lower toxicity compared to lormetazepam and flunitrazepam in mice.F5 email alerts
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. IUPAC name.
Interactive image. Wagener, Klaus Gruber 16 October Retrieved 3 August New Synthetic Drugs Database. Haining; Allan E. Rettie; Usanda Busto; Rachel F. Tyndale; Edward M. Sellers April Drug Metabolism and Disposition. World Psychiatry. Retrieved 15 August Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. Drug Testing and Analysis. The cases of fonazepam and nifoxipam". Forensic Toxicology. Cloxazolam Flutazolam Haloxazolam Mexazolam Oxazolam.50 Drugs In 1 Minute
Bentazepam Clotiazepam. Olanzapine Telenzepine. Alprazolam triazolobenzophenone Avizafone Rilmazafone.
Etomidate Metomidate Propoxate. Glutethimide Methyprylon Pyrithyldione Piperidione. Serotonin antagonists and reuptake inhibitors Etoperidone Nefazodone Trazodone Tricyclic antidepressants Amitriptyline Doxepin Trimipramineetc.Among the new psychoactive substances NPSso-called designer benzodiazepines have become of particular importance over the last 2 years, due to their increasing availability on the internet drug market.
Therapeutically used nitrobenzodiazepines such as flunitrazepam are known to be extensively metabolized via N-dealkylation to active metabolites and via nitro reduction to the 7-amino compounds.
The aim of the present work was to tentatively identify phase I and II metabolites of the latest members of this class appearing on the NPS market, clonazolam, meclonazepam, and nifoxipam, in human urine samples.
Nano-liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry was used to provide data about their detectability in urine. Data revealed that clonazolam and meclonazepam were extensively metabolized and mainly excreted as their amino and acetamino metabolites. Nifoxipam was also extensively metabolized, but instead mainly excreted as the acetamino metabolite and a glucuronic acid conjugate of the parent. Based on analysis of human urine samples collected in cases of acute intoxication within the Swedish STRIDA project, and samples submitted for routine drug testing, the most abundant metabolites and good targets for urine drug testing were 7-aminoclonazolam for clonazolam, 7-acetaminomeclonazepam for meclonazepam, and 7-acetaminonifoxipam for nifoxipam.
Abstract Among the new psychoactive substances NPSso-called designer benzodiazepines have become of particular importance over the last 2 years, due to their increasing availability on the internet drug market. Publication types Research Support, Non-U. Substances Designer Drugs.Fonazepam desmethylflunitrazepam and nifoxipam 3-hydroxy-desmethylflunitrazepam are benzodiazepine derivatives and active metabolites of flunitrazepam. They recently invaded the drug arena as substances of abuse and alerted the forensic community after being seized in powder and tablet forms in Europe between and To our knowledge, fonazepam and nifoxipam-related intoxications, lethal or not, have not been reported in the scientific literature.
All the available information was gathered through a detailed search of PubMed and the World Wide Web. During recent years, a great number of new psychoactive substances NPSs or reappeared old ones have been introduced into the market of illicit drugs, and they have been reported to be used by drug addicts.
These substances usually mimic the pharmacological effects of already known and abused drugs, possessing euphoric, stimulating or hallucinogenic effects, while avoiding detection and classification as illegal. Thus, being legally placed and generally available in Internet shops and online sales, they often become the causes of an increasing number of poisonings and fatal intoxications. They also represent an enormous challenge for clinical and forensic toxicologists, as well as policy makers in many countries [ 23 ].
A relatively new phenomenon is the occurrence of designer benzodiazepines, like flubromazolam, meclonazepam, fonazepam, nifoxipam and pyrazolam, as they have been highlighted by the EMCDDA since [ 45 ].
Some of them are common active metabolites of classic benzodiazepines e.318i belt diagram diagram base website belt diagram
Fonazepam and nifoxipam are the desmethyl- and the 3-hydroxy-desmethyl-derivatives of flunitrazepam one of the 7-nitrobenzodiazepinesrespectively, and they are two of its active metabolites.
Thus, these two metabolites that are also used as new designer benzodiazepines are supposed to possess similar pharmacological and toxicological properties to the parent drug. Nifoxipam could also be a metabolite of fonazepam. A number of nifoxipam seizures were reported between December and July in Europe, while in the case of fonazepam, only two recent seizures of the drug have been reported in January in Germany and in March in Sweden.
These two designer benzodiazepines are sold as research chemicals that are not intended for human or animal consumption [ 8 — 10 ]. The aim of this article is to review all the available information on chemistry and synthesis of fonazepam and nifoxipam, their pharmacology and toxicology, their biotransformation and their use as drugs of abuse, as well as the published methods for their determination in biological samples.
Nevertheless, no data on their toxicology or extended information on their prevalence were found. Reported seizures around the world and their legal status are also presented. Fonazepam desmethylflunitrazepam and nifoxipam 3-hydroxy-desmethylflunitrazepam are two of the metabolites of flunitrazepam that result from the in vivo demethylation of the parent compound followed by 3-hydroxylation of the benzodiazepine ring in the case of nifoxipam [ 911 — 13 ]. Taking into consideration the structure of nifoxipam, we can also assume that it could be the 3-hydroxy metabolite of fonazepam.
Fonazepam can also be a photodecomposition product of flunitrazepam [ 14 ]. The IUPAC name of fonazepam is 5- 2-fluorophenyl nitro-1,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodiazepinone, while Ro or RoN -desmethylflunitrazepam, desmethylflunitrazepam and norflunitrazepam are also used.
Its CAS number is It is also named as 5- 2-fluorophenyl hydroxynitro-1 H -benzo[e][ 14 ]diazepin-2 3 H -one, DP and 3-hydroxydesmethylflunitrazepam. It is a crystalline solid that may be more soluble in water than its parent compound, due to the presence of the hydroxyl group in the 3 position of the benzodiazepine ring.
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